Vegetarian & Vegan: the pros and cons

I’m going to guess that you probably know someone who’s vegetarian, vegan or has been at some point. It might be for their health or weight loss, having heard that they’ll be better on a ‘traditional’ plant-based diet. Or they might be conscious of protecting their environment, aware that farming animals requires more resources than plants. Perhaps it’s a concern for animal wellbeing, recognition of excessive antibiotic or hormone use in livestock, or a religious conviction.

Maybe you are that person, or are wondering if you should cut out meat. What are the health effects and the environmental impact, and what should you be wary of?

Vegetarian and Vegan



There are two commonly discussed opinions on this topic. Firstly, whether a vegetarian diet could make you healthier, or second, if you’ll actually end up deficient in all sorts of nutrients and minerals.

To address the first topic, you’ll be healthier if you eat healthier food. No surprises there. A diet of French fries, candy and chocolate cake is still perfectly vegetarian, and most certainly not healthy.

However, many people find when they switch to a vegetarian or vegan diet that they do tend to eat healthier food because they can’t eat some unhealthy foods (such as hamburgers, or many dairy-based foods, cake if it has egg, etc…). They’re far more likely to get to the 5 veg – 2 fruit or more per day and get a higher fibre intake and greater amount of plant-based nutrients. Naturally they’re not going to have the problems associated with overconsumption of red meats, and will tend to have a lower intake of saturated fats (the bad kind) and cholesterol.

However, if you do love bacon and steak, never fear. This is a great example of “everything in moderation”. Eat a balanced diet with your fruit, veg, fibre, nutrients and a bit of meat and dairy and you’ll be fine.

So the bottom line is that eating healthier makes you healthy, and going plant-based helps you do that, then go for it.


But what about nutrient deficiencies? Do vegetarians and vegans get enough protein, iron, calcium and all their vitamins? If they’re sensible about it, then yes. But if you suddenly cut out all your meat and replace it with bread and potato chips to simply fill you up, you won’t be fine.

Instead you should replace your meat protein with legumes such as peas, beans and lentils, or whole grains, nuts or seeds. Iron can again be obtained from alternate, plant-based sources, although it is more difficult for the human body to absorb than animal-sourced iron, so is best consumed along with Vitamin C to maximise uptake. Other important vitamins and minerals that vegetarians and vegans may struggle with include calcium, zinc, Vitamins B12, D and K and omega-3 fatty acids. All of these can be found within a plant-based diet, they just require a conscious and planned effort to eat particular foods in order to maintain health.

Another important note is that while a vegan diet can be perfectly healthy for an adult, in children it is quite different because they require nutrition to grow and develop in different ways to adults. If a child is to begin a vegetarian or vegan diet, it is recommended to see a nutrition specialist to ascertain a healthy way for this to be implanted in a young child.




You’ve probably heard the stats. Anything from halving to slashing your carbon emissions by factors of 10 by switching to a plant-based diet. It’s true that raising animals does use more land resources and result in greater carbon and methane emissions. So eating less meat has the potential to help the environment. However, the impact is not as great as such headlines would have you believe.

Firstly, only 1/5 of our carbon emissions come from the food we eat. The second problem is that often such optimistic reductions are based on entirely vegan diets, avoiding every single animal product altogether, including some things you might not realise are animal-based: certain cosmetics, glues, cleaners, soaps, polishes and more.

These extra uses of animals mean that it is economically viable to farm animals. After all, if plant crops use so much less resources, wouldn’t it be otherwise unsustainable to farm many animals at all? If everyone went vegan, then we’d have to use more resources to produce these same products that we source from animals.

So if you entirely switch your diet over, you’ll probably cut your emissions by 4-5%. It’s not an insignificant number, but also not a definitive reason to do so.

So there’s a brief summary. You could be healthier and help the environment, but even if you’re not keen to take such a big step, then try reducing your meat consumption, keeping in mind that everything can be good in moderation.

6 thoughts on “Vegetarian & Vegan: the pros and cons

  1. Interesting post and well-balanced. I would be really curious to learn more about the environmental impact of meat consumption vs. being a vegetarian. I study nomadic livestock keepers and often in those environments livestock is one of the few livelihood options people have. I’ve always wondered if that means meat consumption is actually better for the environment considering those landscapes or whether it’s mainly the best available alternative for those people.


    1. Definitely an interesting point. I think there’s little harm in farming livestock in areas where traditional crops aren’t viable … such as here in the Australian outback, or in hills and rugged areas where grass can survive to feed these animals, but crops wouldn’t work. There’s also the great “rebound effect” of being vegetarian- where our financial or environmental savings are outweighed by what we do with them. Such as saving money by not buying meat and dairy … but then feeling richer, so going for a drive somewhere, throwing a party, or buying a reward … made of highly consumable goods such as plastics and paper that damage the environment more. There’s so much to discuss and it’s a difficult topic to accurately assess the impacts!


    1. We definitely should! Our biggest thing would be not so much going vegetarian/vegan but simply not wasting so much. Buying what we need, eating for maximum nutrition and eating everything, not letting it go bad and throwing it out.

      Supermarkets are also part of this problem though! Although, I was reading an article a few months back about a very large piggery that feeds its pigs entirely off supermarket waste: everything from veggies to icecream. In my mind, that’s an incredibly sustainable and environmentally ethical way of producing pork for human consumption!

      Liked by 1 person

  2. I find your assessment of the environment differs quite a bit from some pretty comprehensive studies ( I just don’t see how having billions more animals on this planet is better for the environment, than just, not having them at all. Not to mention as population grows we are cutting down more and more forest land for grazing/animal feed. Thus, losing carbon sequestration capabilities. It just doesn’t make sense to me ¯\_(ツ)_/¯.


    1. Hi Rich,
      Thanks for sharing your opinion and this study. I did not mean to say that there was no environmental impact, simply that it was less than might be perceived. I mentioned that food is only 1/5 of the average individual’s emissions. That means that even if we achieved the 73% reduction that your link mentions, we’d still only reduce our total lifestyle emissions by 15-15%, and that only if we switched from consuming the highest impact beef (probably grain-fed rather than grass-fed) to eating only low-impact veg and grains, entirely cutting out alcohol and other high-impact foods, which would be difficult to convince everyone to do. Also other animal products that are non-food would have to be produced some other way, which would heighten the impact. So in terms of total environmental impact of lifestyle, I wanted to clarify that going entirely vegan won’t reduce your total lifestyle by nearly as much (as this is a commonly misinterpretation of these statistics).
      That being said, I agree that reducing meat consumption is better for the environment and great if you want to do so. However, as a highly active person who’s often iron-deficient, I do still eat meat and some dairy products. Not heaps, and often those are things like chicken livers (as chickens have a relatively low impact and liver is the “less-used” part), but I just wanted to say that that’s not as terrible as some articles would have people believe. I’m sorry this is a contentious issue, but going vegan is not the only (or even the best) practical solution. Reducing air flights, catching buses, cycling or walking instead of driving would also yield massive impacts and also keep people more healthy and active overall.


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